Low Vision in Children

Preschool Age

This slide collection covers most of my slides on the specific features in thedevelopment of preschool visually impaired children, mostly children with moderateor severe low vision. The texts next to the thumbnail pictures are rather short.If you want to read more, references to my articles and booksare at the end of the text. I have received some of the slides from the teachingcollections of my colleagues and coworkers. The legends of these slides mention thesources. About one half of the slides have been photographed by parents or therapistsof my little patients, often specifically requested for my lectures. I would liketo express my heart felt thanks to everyone who has helped in building this teachingmaterial.
Level of wakefulness
Motor development
Spatial concepts I
Spatial concepts II
Spatial concepts III
Object permanence
Picture perception


Visual impairment affects all areas of development. The most important areas are communication, bonding, level of wakefulness, motor development, spatial concepts, balance, object permanence, picture perception, incident learning, language development and social interaction. The three last mentioned areas of development belong to special education rather than ophthalmology and are therefore not included in this slide collection.

In the area of motor development the effect is most noticeable in oculomotor functions, head control, hand regard, bringing hands to midline, reaching and in starting to move.

Visually impaired infants and children need to use compensating techniques. Some visually impaired children develop mannerisms.


Carlson S, Hyvärinen L. Visual rehabilitation after long lasting early blindness.Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1983; 61:701-713.

Carlson S, Hyvärinen L, Raninen A. Persistent behavioural blindness afterearly visual deprivation and active visual rehabilitation: a case report. Br J Ophthalmol1986; 70:607-611.

Hyvärinen J, Hyvärinen L. Blindness and modification of associaton cortexby early binocular deprivation in monkeys. Child Care Health Dev 1979; 5:385-387.

Hyvärinen L, Näsänen R, Laurinen P. New visual acity test for pre-schoolchildren. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1980; 58:507-511.

Hyvärinen J, Hyvärinen L, Linnankoski I. Modificationof parietal association cortex and functional blindness after binocular deprivationin young monkeys. Exp Brain Res 1981; 42:1-8.

Hyvärinen L, Lindstedt E (eds) Early visual development - normal and abnormal,Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1983, Suppl.157:1-122.

Different editions of my book 'Vision in Children':

  • Barnets Syn (1983) Finlands svenska synskadade r.f, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Lapsen Näkö - normaali ja poikkeava (1986) Lääkintöhallitus, Julkaisuja Nro 48, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Vision in Children - normal and abnormal (1988) Canadian Deaf-Blind and Rubella Association, Meaford, Ontario.
  • Vision normales et paranormales de niños (1988) Organization National de Ciegos, Madrid, Spain.
  • La Vision chez les Enfants - normale et anormale (1989) L'Association Candienne de la Surdi-Cecite et de la Rubeole, Meaford, Ontario.
  • O descenvolvimento normal e anormal da visão (1990) Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Brasil.
  • Lapse Nägemine - normaalne ja kahjustatud (1992) AS Infotrükk, Tallinn, Estonia.
  • Sehen im Kindesalter (1993) edition bentheim, Würzburg.
  • Zrenie u detei, normalnoe i s narusheniami. (1996) St.Petersburg, Early Intervention Institute, St.Petersburg.

Hyvärinen L. Assessment of visually impaired infants. (1994) Clinics of NorthAmerica, 1994; 7:219-225.

Hyvärinen L. Visual Assessment, in de Jong & H Neugebauer (eds.) TimelyIntervention, edition bentheim 1995.

Hyvärinen L. Vision Testing Manual 1995-1996. (1996) Precision Vision, VillaPark, Illinois.

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